Today let us focus our attention on a rare type of cancer which is esophageal cancer. Though this type of carcinoma is rare, it is not absent and hence we all should be aware of it.
There are two types of esophageal cancer-Squamous cell carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma.
We will discuss in this article today about the risk factors both of these two types of esophageal cancer.
SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA:
- GENDER AND RACE- Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is more common in black individuals as compared to white individuals. Also, studies show that it is more commonly seen in men as compared to women.
- SMOKING- Smoking is one aspect which is common in all types of cancer and the same applies for this type of cancer as well. It is seen that smokers are 5 times at risk than non-smokers.
- ALCOHOL- Smoking always accompanies alcohol everywhere and it does so here as well. Alcohol consumptions increase the risk for esophageal squamous cell cancer. Although it certainly depends on the amount of alcohol consumption on a weekly basis. Specific types of alcohol like Brandie, corn beer, whiskeys etc. puts the person at an increased risk.
- DIET AND NUTRITION- Decreased intake of fruits and vegetables puts a person at risk because the diet of that person is deficient in dietary fiber and antioxidants along with other essential vitamins and minerals which have anti-cancer properties.
- GENDER AND RACE- In case of esophageal adenocarcinoma, it is most common in white individuals as compared to black individuals. The incidence of it being more in men as compared to women remains similar to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
- GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE(GERD) AND BARETT’S ESOPHAGUS- The incidence of GERD has increased in the past decade. if GERD remains undiagnosed or untreated for a long period of time it leads to Barett’s esophagus which in the long run causes esophageal adenocarcinoma. This is the reason why early diagnosis and treatment of any disease plays such an important role.
- OBESITY- Obesity is a consistent and major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is more commonly seen in developed countries as incidences of obesity is more there. Obesity is a major risk factor due to two main reasons, first being the increasing incidence of GERD in obese individuals and the second is increased inflammatory markers present in obese individuals.
- TOBACCO AND NUTRITION- Tabacco consumption is mainly at a rise in people who regularly smoke and hence increased risk in smokers as compared to non-smokers. similar to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, nutrition plays a major role in the prevention of this disease. Diet deficit in dietary fiber, vitamin, minerals, anti-oxidants as well as other anti-carcinogenic substances increases the risk. Consumption of adequate amount of these food groups helps in the prevention of esophageal cancer.
Those were the risk factors of both the types of esophageal cancer. There is one more risk factor which remains common for both the types of cancer and that is genetics. There may be some genetic variations or disturbance which can increase the risk for esophageal cancer.
Now that we know about the risk factors, we can help ourselves and our loved ones in the prevention of this disease. The risk factors that can be modified include those related to diet and nutrition and cessation of smoking can play a major role in the prevention strategy.
That was all for today, I really hope this post benefits you in some way. If you have any questions regarding this topic or any other topic please do mention in it the comments section below, I would love to answer them for you.
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